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Effet du tourteau de colza enrichi en protéine, des conditions de granulation et de l’incorporation d’enzymes sur les performances zootechniques du porc en croissance

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Diego Melo (IRTA, Espagne) et al., 53es Journée de la Recherche Porcine (FRA), 2021, 1er, 2, 3 et 4 février 2021, p.193-198

L’intérêt pour le porc d’un tourteau de colza enrichi en protéines (PB), des conditions de granulation et de l’incorporation d’enzymes a été évalué dans deux essais de performances zootechniques et de digestibilité. Dans l’essai 1, six traitements alimentaires à base de tourteau de colza témoin ou enrichi en protéines par un procédé biologique (PB1) et incorporant ou non des enzymes (témoin, protéases et protéases plus NSPases) ont été utilisés. Dans l’essai 2, huit traitements correspondant à deux tourteaux de colza témoin ou enrichi en protéine par fractionnement (PB2), l’emploi de deux filières de granulation (4×40 et 4×60 mm), avec ou sans utilisation de vapeur ont été appliqués. Dans chaque essai, 144 porcs logés à deux par case ont été utilisés et des échantillons de fèces ont été récoltés afin de déterminer la digestibilité. La source de colza utilisée dans l’essai 1 n’a pas affecté la croissance, le PV ou la digestibilité (P > 0,05). Cependant, les porcs ayant reçu les régimes avec du colza PB1 ont consommé moins d’aliment (P < 0,01) et présentaient un meilleur indice de consommation (IC ; P < 0,01). L’utilisation d’enzymes n’a pas eu d’effet sur les performances ou la digestibilité (P > 0,05). Dans l’essai 2, le colza PB2, ainsi que la filière 4x60 mm ont amélioré la croissance, le poids vif (PV) final (P < 0,01) et l’IC (P < 0,05). L’utilisation de vapeur a entrainé une réduction de l’ingéré (P < 0,05) conduisant à une amélioration de l’IC (P < 0,001). En général, la digestibilité des nutriments dans cet essai dépend de la source de colza (P < 0,001). En conclusion, le tourteau de colza enrichi en protéines, que ce soit par un procédé biologique ou par fractionnement, pourrait présenter un intérêt majeur pour l’alimentation du porc.

Influence of high-protein rapeseed meal, feed pelleting conditions and exogenous enzymes on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs

A process was developed to increase the protein content of rapeseed meal (RSM), which is more attractive for animal feeding in the European Union (EU), and the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of RSM in combination with enzyme supplementation or pelleting conditions (die size and steam) of the growing pig´s diet on productive parameters and nutrient digestibility. In trial 1, a 2×3 factorial design with 6 diets that contained conventional (35% CP) or high-protein (40% CP) RSM combined with supplementation with proteases or proteases plus NSPases enzymes was used. In trial 2, a 2×2×2 factorial design that resulted from combining two RSM, two pelleting dies (4×40 or 4×60 mm), with or without steam, was used. In both trials, 144 growing pigs, allocated at two/pen, were used. Trials lasted 6 weeks, and faeces were collected to determine digestibility. Body weight gain was not influenced by the diet (NS) in trial 1. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved (P < 0.01), as did fat and phosphorus digestibility, which increased (P<0.01) in pigs fed high-protein RSM diets. Enzyme inclusion did not influence productive or digestibility (P˃0.05) parameters. In trial 2, pig weight gain and FCR improved with both high-protein RSM and the long die (4x60 mm). The use of steam also improved FCR but did not influence weight gain. Digestibility of the main nutrient components was improved by high protein RSM, while die size did not influence it. In conclusion, high-protein RSM improves the feed efficiency of growing pigs, and using it can help reduce EU protein imports for animal feeding.

2021

What mineral and vitamin levels to recommand in swine diets. Que níveis de vitamina e mineral são recomendados em rações de suínos?

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English

Minerals, including trace-elements, and vitamins are currently introduced into the pig diet in order to obtain suitable performances for the modern pig genotype bred in confinement. Most of the mineral and vitamin contents of cereals and usual protein compounds are characterized by their poor and variable availability. Supplemental diets are then usually needed. This paper, based on literature data, reviews the pig requirement for minerals and vitamins in order to ensure economic and profitable performance. Recent research has focused on phosphorus due to environmental considerations. The widespread use of microbial phytase has decreased the need for inorganic phosphates. Cereals are particularly deficient in calcium and sodium, consequently limestone and salt are necessary to meet the pig need for these minerals. Zinc and copper are recognized as growth promoting agents but their use at high levels is detrimental to the environment. The pig diets usually contain supplemental contents of iron, manganese, cobalt, iodine and selenium. The need for these elements in pig diets is described individually. Vitamin E and choline represent the most expensive vitamins added. Choline is then usually not incorporated into the pig fattening diet taking into account the choline contents of the raw materials, while vitamin E is included at a lower level than those which improve the meat quality. Our recent research has dealt with increased levels of vitamins added in combination, calculating higher requirement of the modern pig genotype. Fewer improvements have been obtained in this way, suggesting that recommendations proposed by INRA in 1984 are mainly justified.

Brasileira

Minerais, inclusive elementos traços, e vitaminas são atualmente adicionados nas rações de suínos objetivando obter performance adequada para genótipos modernos criados em confinamento. A maioria do conteúdo de mineral e vitamina dos cereais e compostos protéicos é caracterizada por sua baixa e variável disponibilidade. Dietas suplementares são então geralmente necessárias. Este artigo, baseado em dados de literatura, revê a exigência do suíno para minerais e vitaminas objetivando assegurar desempenho econômico e rentável. Recente pesquisa tem focado no fósforo devido às considerações ambientais. A propagação do uso de fitase microbial reduziu a necessidade de fosfato inorgânico. Cereais são particularmente deficientes em cálcio e sódio, consequentemente calcário e sal são necessários para atender a necessidade do suíno para estes minerais. Zinco e cobre são reconhecidos como agentes promotores de crescimento, mas sua utilização em elevados níveis são prejudiciais ao meio-ambiente. As rações de suínos geralmente contêm quantidades suplementares de ferro, manganês, cobalto, iodo e selênio. A necessidade para estes elementos nas rações de suínos é descrita individualmente. A vitamina E e a colina são as vitaminas mais caras a serem adicionadas. Consequentemente, a Colina não é incorporada na ração de suínos em terminação, levando-se em conta o conteúdo das matérias-primas, enquanto que a vitamina E é incluída em nível mais baixo do que aqueles que melhoram a qualidade da carne. Nossa pesquisa recente lidou com níveis elevados de vitaminas adicionadas em misturas, calculando exigências mais elevadas dos genótipos suínos modernos. Poucos avanços foram obtidos dessa maneira, sugerindo que as recomendações proposta pelo INRA em 1984 são até hoje justificadas.

2009