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Effect of breed on fatty acid composition and lipogenic enzyme abundance in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs

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This study investigated the role of lipogenic enzyme expression in breed-specific fat deposition in pigs.
OBJECTIVES:
(i) determine effect of breed on the relative abundance of the key lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), delta-6 desaturase (&‘6;6D), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in pig subcutaneous adipose tissue. (ii) Investigate breed-specific relationships between lipogenic enzyme abundance and fatty acid composition. Large White × Piétrain, Piétrain, and Duroc × Piétrain pigs were used. Expression of SCD, &‘6;6D, and FAS was analyzed by Western blotting. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. FAS protein in Large White × Piétrain pigs was similar to the Piétrain breed, but was significantly higher than Duroc × Piétrain. A positive relationship was found between FAS abundance and the saturated fatty acids (SFAs), for Large White × Piétrain pigs, but not for the other breeds. &‘6;6D was significantly higher in Large White × Piétrain compared with Duroc × Piétrain and Piétrain. This was accompanied by significantly higher total n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the Large White × Piétrain when compared to the other breeds.
CONCLUSIONS:
(i) increased subcutaneous adipose tissue SFA content in Large White × Piétrain pigs (but not Piétrain and Duroc × Piétrain) is related to increased abundance of FAS protein; (ii) high n-3 PUFA content in Large White × Piétrain pigs is related to activation of &‘6;6D protein synthesis; (iii) SCD and &‘6;6D abundance does not contribute to between-breed differences in MUFA and n-6 PUFA content of pig subcutaneous adipose tissue.

2013