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Chemical reactivity of nitrite and ascorbate in a cured and cooked meat model implication in nitrosation, nitrosylation and oxidation

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Aline Bonifacie (Inrae/Ifip) et al., Food Chemistry, 2021, volume 348, 30 juin, 9 pages

Nitrite, added to cured meat for its bacteriological and technological properties, is implicated in the formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs), such as nitrosylheme, nitrosamines and nitrosothiols, suspected to have a potential impact on human health. The mechanisms involved in NOC formation are studied in regard with the dose–response relationship of added nitrite and its interaction with ascorbate on NOC formation in a cured and cooked meat model. The impact of a second cooking stage on nitrosation was evaluated. The addition of nitrite in the cured and cooked model promoted heme iron nitrosylation and S-nitrosation but not N-nitrosation. Nitrite reduced lipid oxidation without an additional ascorbate effect. The second cooking sharply increased the nitrosamine content while the presence of ascorbate considerably lowered their levels and protected nitrosothiols from degradation. This study gives new insights on the chemical reactivity of NOCs in a cured meat model.


Determination of nitroso-compounds in food products

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Aline Bonifacie (Ifip/Inrae) et al., Methods X, 2021, volume 8, mars, 6 pages

Nitrite and nitrate are present in many foods. Nitrate can be converted into nitrite in human body. Nitrite can react with secondary amines to form secondary amines and with thiols to form nitrosothiols. Some nitrosamines are cancers suspect. Because of their importance in terms of human health, research on these compounds is still topical and the use of a rapid and reproducible method for determination and quantification of these compounds is necessary. This article presents a method to study the chemical reactivity of nitrite in meat products through the analysis of non-volatile nitrosamines and nitrosothiols based on: • A specific alkaline and heat extraction of nitro-compounds followed by deprotenization by ultrafiltration • NO detection by the Griess reaction • NO released from S-NO and N-NO bonds by UV light followed by a specific cleavage of S-NO bonds with HgCl2 This method, validated on cured meat products, could be developed in the same way on all products containing nitrite and nitrate and leading to the formation of nitroso-compounds. The limit of detection for these compounds are of the order of the micromole per liter.

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Red wine and pomegranate extracts suppress cured meat promotion of colonic mucin-depleted foci in carcinogen-induced rats

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Nutrition and Cancer, 2017, vol. 1, 18 janvier, 11 pages, par Nadia M. Bastide et al.

Processed meat intake is carcinogenic to humans. We have shown that intake of a workshop-made cured meat with erythorbate promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated that polyphenols could inhibit this effect by limitation of endogenous lipid peroxidation and nitrosation. Polyphenol-rich plant extracts were added to the workshop-made cured meat and given for 14 days to rats and 100 days to azoxymethane-induced rats to evaluate the inhibition of preneoplastic lesions. Colons of 100-d study were scored for precancerous lesions (mucin-depleted foci, MDF), and biochemical end points of peroxidation and nitrosation were measured in urinary and fecal samples. In comparison with cured meat-fed rats, dried red wine, pomegranate extract, α-tocopherol added at one dose to cured meat and withdrawal of erythorbate significantly decreased the number of MDF per colon (but white grape and rosemary extracts did not). This protection was associated with the full suppression of fecal excretion of nitrosyl iron, suggesting that this nitroso compound might be a promoter of carcinogenesis. At optimized concentrations, the incorporation of these plant extracts in cured meat might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat consumption.