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Retrospective by sex of the new EU lean meat content of pig carcasses

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Gérard Daumas, 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, poster

A new EU regulation on carcass classification applies from July 2018. This regulation changes the definition of the reference lean meat percentage (LMP) which becomes the LMP in the carcass (from total dissection). Nevertheless, each Member State can choose when he will update its grading methods. The aim of this work is to simulate this change on the last 5 years in France for each sex.
Conversely to most of European countries sex is registered online in France during pig classification. Statistics per sex are regularly published by the regional classification organisations.
The production of entire males started in France in 2013 (13% of the males), increased quickly and is now stable (27% of the males in 2017), around 2.5 million a year. More than 95% of entire males are classified with the classification method CSB Image-Meater® (IM) approved by the EU in 2013. The present LMP prediction equation contains two fat depths (G3 and G4) and two muscle depths (M3 and M4).
A sample of 180 pigs was uniformly stratified on sex: 60 entire males, 60 females and 60 castrated males. All cuts were CT scanned allowing to calculate the LMP. Prediction equation was calculated by a general linear model including the 4 depths as well as the interactions with sex. The stepwise procedure by using BIC selected a model with 1 fat depth (G3) and 2 muscle depths (M3 and M4), G3 and M3 coefficients depending on sex. The RMSE was 2.15. Removal of M4 only decreased the RMSE of 0.01. The fat coefficient of entire males was more than twice that of females, while that of castrates was in the middle. Differences on M3 coefficient had lower impact on LMP.
The equation was applied on the annual classification averages from 2013 to 2017. In 4 years LMP increased, but differently according to sex: +0.11 for entire males, +0.25 for females and +0.34 for castrated males. In the same period the difference between entire and castrated males decreased from 4.02 to 3.79, while the difference between entire males and females decreased from 1.37 to 1.24.
When the Image-Meater method will be updated, it seems worthwhile to consider separate slopes for entire males, females and castrated males.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas, 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, abstract, PDF icon Gérard Daumas, 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, poster
2018

A pan-European computed tomography procedure for measuring the new EU lean meat content of pigs

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Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 69th Annual meeting of the european federation of animal science (EAAP), Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, poster

A new EU regulation on carcass classification applies from July 2018. The new reference to calibrate the pig classification methods is a lean meat percentage based on total dissection (LMPtd). Manual dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. If the national pig population to be sampled has the same characteristics as the population for which a CT procedure has been previously corrected, no additional dissection is required. In most of the national applications for authorisation of classification methods the population characteristics are managed via a stratification on a fat depth, mimicking the LMP variation.
The aim of this paper is to propose a pan-European CT procedure to calibrate the pig classification methods without any additional manual dissection. A sample of 29 half-carcasses was CT scanned with 3 mm slice thickness and then fully dissected according to the EU regulation. The CT muscle volume was calculated by thresholding in the Hounsfield range 0-120. It was converted into muscle weight by applying a density of 1.04. The weight was divided by the carcass weight to obtain the lean meat percentage from CT (LMPct), in the same way as done for the LMPtd. LMPtd was regressed on LMPct. Only the slope was significant and was estimated at 0.965 (s.e.=0.002). The RMSE was 0.81. The plot of residuals against fitted values showed no pattern and no heterogeneity of variances. The main source of measurement error is the thresholding of the rind. As the thickness of the rind is very thin (2-3 mm), most of the voxels including rind are mixed voxels, either with air or with fat. Their Hounsfield values are therefore less than 0 and these voxels are classified in non-muscle. Only a few rind voxels have a Hounsfield value in the range [0-120 HU] and are thus misclassified in muscle. This is taken into account by the slope value which is slightly less than 1. The LMPtd range in the sample (53-68) covers the S+E classes (>= 55) which represent more than 90% of the EU pigs. It covers too more than 80% of all the national populations, excepted Italy. This robust CT procedure can therefore be applied in 27 Member States, by using a pan-European multiplicative factor of 0.965, without any additional national dissection.

PDF icon Gérard Daumas et Mathieu Monziols, 69th EAAP, Dubrovnik, Croatie, 27-31 août 2018, poster
2018

Computed tomography for comparing the lean meat content of different genotypes of entire male pigs

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Gérard Dumas et al., 64th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (ICOMST), 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie

In the framework of pig carcass classification a new EU regulation applying from July 2018 makes compulsory the use of a new reference. It is a lean meat percentage (LMP) based on total dissection (LMPtd) of a halfcarcass. Manual dissection can be replaced by an unbiased computed tomography (CT) procedure. Daumas et al. [1] developed a pan-European CT procedure for determining this LMP. The hypothesis is such a procedure could be applied on very lean carcasses, issued from entire males of purebred used as terminal sires in production. The aim of this paper is to test this CT procedure to assess the LMP differences between several lean genetic groups and the three halothane genotypes. 

PDF icon Gérard Dumas et al., 64th ICOMST, 12–17 août 2018, Melbourne, Australie
2018

Classification of trace elements in tissues from organic and conventional French pig production

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Julien Parinet et al., Meat Science, 2018, volume 141, juillet, p. 28-35

This study assesses the impact of the farming system on the levels of copper, zinc, arseniccadmium, lead and mercury in pig tissues from three types of production (Organic (n = 28), Label Rouge (n = 12) and Conventional (n = 30)) randomly sampled in different slaughterhouses. All the concentrations were below regulatory limits. In muscles, Cu, Zn and As were measured at slightly higher levels in organic samples but no differences between organic and Label Rouge was observed. Livers from conventional and Label Rouge pig farms exhibited higher Zn and Cd contents than the organic ones, probably due to different practice in zinc or phytase supplementation of fattening diets. Principal component analysis indicated a correlation between Cu and As concentrations in liver and carcass weight, and between Zn and Cd liver levels and lean meat percentage. The linear discriminant analysis succeeded in predicting the farming process on the basis of the lean meat percentage and the liver Cd level.

2018

« Comment améliorer la qualité technologique des viandes issues de la filière porcine française ? »

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Mardi 17 janvier 2017 de 9h40 à 16h50 à Rennes Amphithéâtre Camille Moule - AgroCampus Ouest, en visioconférences avec les sites de l’IFIP à Paris et Toulouse
 

PDF icon voir le programme journée qualité technologique des viandes de porc le 17/01/2016
2016

An accurate and simple Computed Tomography approach for measuring the lean meat percentage of pig cuts (une approche précise et simple de la mesure du taux de viande maigre des découpes de porc par tomodensitométrie)

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The global challenge was to develop a robust, unbiased, accurate and simple reference method for measuring the lean meat weight and percentage (in live animals, carcasses, cuts and meat pieces). The principal aim of this study was first to develop such a method on pig cuts.

PDF icon An accurate and simple Computed Tomography approach for measuring the lean meat percentage of pig cuts<br /><br /><br />(une approche précise et simple de la mesure du taux de viande maigre des découpes de porc par tomodensitométrie)
2011

Determination of IMF by MRI: a validation with the NIT and NMR techniques

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The intramuscular fat content in fresh pork and its distribution through the muscle are important factors in sensory acceptability to the consumer. The determination of intramuscular fat is based on the meticulous and time-consuming standard chemical extraction methods. Although near infrared transmittance (NIT) is a secondary method linked to a chemical reference method by sophisticated calibration, it is now an approved method for the commercial chemical analysis of meat.
PDF icon Determination of IMF by MRI: a validation with the NIT and NMR techniques
2010

Detection of invariant structures and selection of representative MRI slices of pig lean meat percentage

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Tomography techniques are well suited to determine carcass composition. Nevertheless, sometimes some practical constraints appear like: too time consuming, too costly, only joints are available. In these cases scanning some representative slices is a suited alternative.

This study aimed at firstly detecting some invariants to register images and secondly at selecting batches of contiguous slices for assessing the lean meat percentage of slaughterpigs.
PDF icon Detection of invariant structures and selection of representative MRI slices of pig lean meat percentage
2010

Pig myology dissection atlas: potential tool for image labeling

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Contextual image analysis is a powerful tool, but it requires anatomical knowledge. Atlases have been developed in different species: human, beef, pig, red deer, etc. Most of them are based on cross-sections on which are identified the different structures (bones, muscles,…). In pig, for instance, the University of Nebraska has published such an atlas for a fatty slaughterpig. Nevertheless, both the 2D views and no information about variability limit the understanding of the carcass characteristics.
PDF icon Pig myology dissection atlas: potential tool for image labeling
2010

A herd modelling approach to determine the economically and environmentally most interesting dietary amino acid level during the fattening period

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InraPorc is a model and software tool designed to evaluate the response of pigs to different nutritional strategies. In this study we simulated herd performance using InraPorc to evaluate different feeding strategies in terms of economic performance and environmental impact. A population of 1000 virtual pigs was generated having the same variance-covariance structure of feed intake and growth parameters as those observed in a real population of pigs.
PDF icon A herd modelling approach to determine the economically and environmentally most interesting dietary amino acid level during the fattening period
2009

Estimation, par utilisation de semence congelée, des évolutions génétiques réalisées entre 1977 et 1998-2000 dans les races Large White et Landrace pour les systèmes neuroendocriniens de réponse au stress

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Une experimentation destinee a estimer les evolutions genetiques realisees entre 1977 et 1998-2000 dans les races Large White (LW) et Landrace (LR) a ete menee par l’INRA et l’IFIP-Institut du Porc. Des truies LW ont ete saillies avec de la semence de verrats LW nes en 1977 (semence congelee) ou en 1998 et les animaux de 2nde generation ont ete controles en station.
PDF icon Estimation, par utilisation de semence congelée, des évolutions génétiques réalisées entre 1977 et 1998-2000 dans les races Large White et Landrace pour les systèmes neuroendocriniens de réponse au stress
2009

Quel est l'impact d'un apport d'énergie sous forme de lipides pendant la gestation et/ou la lactation sur les performances des truies allaitantes et celles des porcelets jusqu'à l'abattage ?

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L’effet de l’apport d’énergie sous forme de lipides ou d’amidon est étudié sur les performances de lactation des truies et de leur portée. Dans l’essai 1, les truies reçoivent un aliment de gestation ou de lactation enrichi en huile de soja (5 %, lot GL5) ou en amidon de maïs (11,3 %, lot GL0) du 35ème jour de gestation jusqu’au sevrage. Les apports quotidiens en énergie nette sont égalisés pendant la gestation. Dans l’essai 2, l’apport d’énergie sous forme d’huile ou d’amidon est réalisé seulement à partir de la mise bas (respectivement lots L5 et L0).
PDF icon Quel est l'impact d'un apport d'énergie sous forme de lipides pendant la gestation et/ou la lactation sur les performances des truies allaitantes et celles des porcelets jusqu'à l'abattage ?
2006

pesée, classement et paiement des porcs en France et dans l'Union européenne. Impact du changement de présentation, du passage à la Teneur en Viande Maigre et des nouveaux accords commerciaux

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Gérard Daumas, rapport d'études, octobre 1997, 84 pages

Document réservé Espace Pro, veuillez vous identifier
1997